Cadiz Spain. Positioned on a narrow spit of land jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean, Cadiz has been the home of the Spanish navy since the 18th century. Founded 3000 years ago by the Phoenicians, Cadiz is the oldest city in Western Europe. The beautiful Gothic Cathedral of La Giralda can be found in the Jewish quarter of Santa Cruz which is renowned for its array of whitewashed houses and scented Bougainvillea.